Are wives and daughters allowed to own property under Biblical law?

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In Biblical culture, the essential economic unit is the household, which encompasses every member of the family who is living together. Sons who get married and move out of their father's house thus establish their own household (Gen. 2:24). In theory, unmarried daughters who move out would do the same (although this could be an unwise decision, for a variety of reasons).

People in a family (husband, wife, children) do not normally see themselves as individuals operating "independently" of the household. Fathers do not normally charge their sons for room and board. Wives do not normally keep an account book recording all of the important household labor they do, expecting that their husband should pay their wages "daily" (see Lev. 19:13). The economic decision-making of each family member must take into account the affect on everyone in the household. Economic decisions can be made by anyone, but there is one "head-of-household" (typically the husband/father: see Num. 30) decision-maker who will have the final say if there is ever a disagreement. Women (typically widows or divorcees: Numbers 30:9) are clearly capable of being "heads-of-households," and therefore could have the final decision-making authority over household wealth. Orphaned daughters could also be heads-of-households: Num. 27:9. When they became married/remarried, the head-of-household status would shift to their husband: Num. 30:6-8.

There may be poor families/households in which all income (even of the children) necessarily supports the family's subsistence. It is only in modern economies that incomes of parents rose enough to allow children to be free from working to support the family. "Child labor" has been accepted and expected throughout most of history.

This doesn't mean that everything is held "in common": clearly anyone in the family can have personal property over which they can make decisions. In fact, teaching children how to accumulate personal wealth/capital is an important responsibility of parents. A daughter, for example, who shows, through her savings, that she has the ability to delay gratification (low time preference), will be signaling something important to a potential husband. A husband who marries wisely will be able to trust his wife to make wise decisions about how to use the household property: Proverbs 31:15-27. A wife who marries wisely can be confident in her husband's leadership and final decision-making authority.

In a family, everyone is working toward the ultimate prosperity of the family and its descendants. Sometimes that requires a person to subordinate their personal preferences, for the good of everyone else.

1 Every wise woman builds her house, but the foolish one tears it down with her own hands. Proverbs 14:1WEB

14 Stand therefore, having the utility belt of truth buckled around your waist, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, Ephesians 6:14WEB